Here, animal studies were included, in addition to human studies, because they can often be instrumental in explaining the health effects of the genera in the (sometimes scarce) human studies. Besides playing a role in fermentation and immune functioning, the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota also plays a role in regulation of body weight and energy balance (26-28). This notion started with the discovery of Turnbaugh and colleagues in 2006 showing that transplantation of gut microbiota of genetically obese ob/ob mice into the gut of germ-free mice resulted in greater weight gain of the receiving animals than animals that received the microbiota of their lean counterparts (29). Comparable studies have since then been done, all adding to the conclusion that obesity risk, as well as related cardiometabolic and inflammatory derangements may rely, at least in part, on gut microbiota (30-34). Because of the apparent fact that the relative abundance and diversity of gut microbiota is related to the hostâ€™s health and/or disease status (20, 35), the possibility to affect the composition of intestinal microbiota by complex indigestible carbohydrates-so-called â€œprebioticsâ€-and subsequently improve the health of the host (36) has gained a lot of interest over the past few years.
In general, it seems that the carbohydrate content of vegetables (and in each of these cases we are talking about edible carbohydrates, not cellulose) is in the range of about 5-10%, somewhere around 20%, or a very high 60-80%. There does not seem to be a great deal of variation in these ranges. Every fruit or vegetable one could conceivably eat- and there are hundreds- contains both edible carbohydrates, which are a good source of energy, and inedible ones, which provide fiber. An excellent example of this edible-inedible mixture is the globe, or French, artichoke- Cynara scolymus, a member of the family Asteraceae, which includes the sunflower. The globe artichoke (not to be confused with the Jerusalem artichoke, or Helianthus tuberosus ) appears in the form of an inflorescence, or a cluster of flowers.
But grain-free dry dog foods do contain carbs! In fact, many grain-free foods contain a fair amount of carbohydrates in the form of potatoes, sweet potatoes, tapioca, or peas. If you eat sugar, flour, and other processed carbohydrates on a regular basis, you can expect to have serious health problems in the future if you don’t already. Another health challenge that may result from regular consumption of refined carbohydrates is the tendency to experience undesirable dips into low blood sugar territory, which often occurs with overreactive waves of insulin release. The key to eating carbohydrate-rich foods and staying healthy is to get your carbohydrates from whole, minimally processed foods.
This can be further exploited to optimise both their techno-functional and physiological properties. Diabetes is characterized by hyperphagia and increased absorption of nutrients from the small intestine coupled with inadequate insulin secretion. Ingestion of fermentable fiber by non-diabetic rats is associated with increased intestinal proglucagon mRNA and greater postprandial release of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1). To determine if food intake and fiber fermentability had similar effects on intestinal proglucagon mRNA in diabetic rats, diets containing cellulose (CEL) or rhubarb (RH) were fed to streptozotocin-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats (Sz-SD), Sz-SD pair-fed to non-diabetic SD controls, and BB diabetic rats (10/treatment) for 14d. Jejunal, ileal and colonic weights were significantly affected by food intake and ileal weight was greater in RH-fed rats.
Enzymatic hydrolysis of Gleditsia sinensis gum was performed to produce manno-oligosaccharides having functional applications as dietary fiber and prebiotics. The optimum hydrolysis conditions, including enzyme loading, temperature and time, from response surface methodology were 8.1 U/g, 57.4Â°C and 34.1h, respectively.
 , based on the ability to be fully dispersed when mixed with water . However, polysaccharides classified as “soluble” may be quite variable in their actual solubility in water .
Starch and glycogen are similar energy-storage molecules found in plants and animals, respectively. Both are made of glucose molecules that are bonded in the same manner; however, glycogen has a higher degree of branching compared to starch. Carbohydrate-rich foods are starchy ones, such as the staples bread, potatoes, and pasta.
- Lastly, the glucose is transported to the body’s cells by the circulatory system, where it can be used for energy.
- Soluble fiber easily dissolves in water and is broken down into a gel-like substance in the part of the gut known as the colon.
- Proteins are present in meat of most types, fish, soy, and dairy products.
There are fewer ketoses than there are aldoses because ketoses have one less chiral carbon. The most prevalent of the ketoses are dihydroxyacetone, ribulose, xylulose, and fructose (see Figure 4).
This paper examines the use of the defatted rice bran hemicellulose B (RBHB), and insoluble dietary fibre (RBDF), as two functional ingredients added to bakery products. The results show that the RBHB from defatted rice bran had high water-binding and swelling capacity.
Like starch, glycogen is made up of chains of glucose linked by alpha bonds; but glycogen chains are more highly branched than starch. It is this highly branched structure that allows the bonds to be more quickly broken down by enzymes in the body. The primary storage sites for glycogen in the human body are the liver and the muscles.
In addition to their role in the human diet, starches from corn, wheat, tapioca, and potatoes are put to numerous commercial uses. Because of its ability to thicken liquids and harden solids, starch is applied in products (e.g., cornstarch) that act as thickening agents, both for foods and nonfood items. Starch also is utilized heavily in various phases of the garment and garment-care industries to impart stiffness to fabrics.
Lastly, the glucose is transported to the bodyâ€™s cells by the circulatory system, where it can be used for energy. When food is consumed, the digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth, where an enzyme in saliva breaks down starch molecules into the disaccharide maltose. The food then moves into the stomach where it mixes with the stomach’s acid and other juices.
Physical properties of breads containing hydrocolloids stored at low temperature: II-Effect of freez…
Results indicated that G. sinensis gum has potential to produce value-added oligosaccharides in food industries. Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry.