butterfly wing patterns: Topics by WorldWideScience.org

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This could be due to spontaneous fluctuations, or linked to frozen fluctuations of the crosslink density. However, disagreement with the corresponding theoretical expressions makes it necessary to account for the spatial correlations of crosslink density, and their progressive unscreening as displayed by the asymptotic behavior. Networks containing pending labeled chains and free labeled stars lead to more precise understanding of the diffusion of free species and the heterogeneity of the deformation.

To assess the risk of ELA production by LA39, different methods, such as toxicity tests, stability tests and methods for environmental monitoring, were developed. Our results revealed that ELA is toxic to a wide array of organisms.

Detailed information is lacking on the colonization and development of ECM on host root systems, and the subsequent physiology and ecology of the host-fungus symbiosis. This chapter attempts to summarize current knowledge in order to present a starting point for further studies on members of this important genus. Several weeds such as the bindweeds Convolvulus arvensis and Calystegia sepium, which belong to the economically most important weeds, are difficult to control with conventional physical and chemical methods.

Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths’ behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern , directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern. and the absence of Wolbachia sp.

One of four mycorrhizal fungi,Scleroderma flavidum, was able to reduce Ni toxicity to the birch seedlings. It did this by reducing transport of Ni to the stems.

Effects of above- and below-ground competition from shrubs on photosynthesis, transpiration and grow…

None of the fungi affected Cu toxicity in birch. In separate experiments, jack pine seedlings were exposed to combinations of Al and Ca. Infection withRhizopogon rubescens increased seedling susceptibility to A1. Seedlings inoculated withSuillus tomentosus showed a greater growth stimulation by Ca than uninoculated jack pines.

In addition, B. platyphylla var. japonica showed decreased relative growth rate, induced by accumulation of Mg in leaves and Co in roots. We conclude that B.

in insects. Although the lack of the endosymbiotic bacteria cannot be considered as the sole cause of the deformation or reduction of wings , one might suggest that Wolbachia sp. could play a protective role in the ontogenetic development of apollo butterfly . Brilliant iridescence of Morpho butterfly wing scales is due to both a thin film lower lamina and a multilayered upper lamina.

However we suggest that also nitrogen acquisition by the plants might be altered by the fungus. Certain fungi probably retain a considerable amount of nitrogen for their own growth, thus reducing the amount transported to the host plant. A decreased N transport finally results in a slower growth. In this study the extramatrical mycelium in the rooting substrate was determined by wet oxidation and by nitrogen determination. This component of the fungal biomass showed the biggest variation among the different mycobiont species.

This is the first report of in vitro IAA production, solubilization of insoluble metal minerals and metal tolerance abilities of the tested fungi. Co-gradient variation in growth rate and development time of a broadly distributed butterfly. patterns , in the shape of the figure `8`, or of `butterfly `. Random crosslinking and end-linking of monodisperse chains have both been studied.

coloration, but also at genomic regions unlinked to color pattern . We observe high levels of divergence between the incipient species H. erato and H. himera, suggesting that divergence may accumulate early in the speciation process. Comparisons of genomic divergence between the incipient species and allopatric races suggest that limited gene flow cannot account for the observed high levels of divergence between the incipient species.

Serpentine soil is distributed throughout Japan and is characterized by excessive Mg and heavy metals (Ni, Cr, and Co) which can lead to suppressed plant growth. We examined the tolerance of the two Betula species by planting seedlings in serpentine and non-serpentine (brown forest) soils. The dry mass of each organ was suppressed in both birches planted in serpentine soil, and the photosynthetic rate was reduced by accumulation of Ni. Also, uptakes of K and Ca were inhibited by accumulation of Mg, Ni, Cr and Co. B.

gerd nickerl

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