Association of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Capecitabine Efficacy in Advanced Gastroesophageal Cancer: Secondary Analysis of the TRIO-013/LOGiC Randomized Clinical Trial

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2. Limit processed foods

Scattered studies indicate that the antibiotic use generally is substantially higher in conventional compared to organic systems, especially for pigs (approximately 5 – 15-fold higher) [229, 230]. In studies from Denmark [231] and the Netherlands [232], the antibiotic use in dairy cows was 50% and 300% higher in conventional compared to organic systems, although a Swedish study found no differences in disease treatment strategies between organic and conventional dairy farms, e.g. for mastitis [233]. While only sparingly documented (e.g. [234, 235]), there is only little use of antibiotics in EU organic broiler production. This is a consequence of regulations prohibiting prophylactic use and prescribing long withdrawal periods before slaughter [6, 236], in conjunction with the fact that it is not feasible to treat single animals in broiler flocks. In conventional broiler production, antibiotic use is common (e.g. [237,238,239]).

However, as the committee heard from an invited speaker, “no new methods have been demonstrated to predict sensitization and allergy in the absence of proven exposure” (Goodman, 2015). Before commercialization, the general population will probably not have been exposed to an allergen similar enough to an allergen in a GE plant to cause cross-reactivity, so it would be useful to use the precommercialization tests only as a rough predictor. To ensure that allergens did not remain in the food system, the Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods report called for a two-step process of precommercialization testing and post-commercialization testing. Even though progress has been made on allergenicity prediction since that report was published in 2004, the committee found that post-commercialization testing would be useful in ensuring that no new allergens are introduced. There have been no steps toward post-commercialization testing since 2004.

Of greater concern is the prevalent use of antibiotics in conventional animal production as a key driver of antibiotic resistance in society; antibiotic use is less intensive in organic production. Thus, organic food production has several documented and potential benefits for human health, and wider application of these production methods also in conventional agriculture, e.g., in integrated pest management, would therefore most likely benefit human health. Food analyses tend to support the notion that organic foods may have some health benefits. Consumers of organic food have a comparatively low dietary exposure to pesticides.

Food served in the traditional South Indian manner is termed banana leaf rice. Plain white or parboiled rice would be served with an assortment of vegetable preparations, lentil gravy, pickles, condiments, and papadum crackers on a banana leaf, which acts as a disposable plate. Banana leaf meals are eaten to celebrate special occasions such as festivals, birthdays, marriages, or to commemorate funeral wakes. It is customary to consume banana leaf meals by hand and to show appreciation for the food by folding the banana leaf inwards, though less ritual and etiquette is observed when the meal isn’t part of a formal occasion, such as the Malayalee community’s elaborate Sadya feasts. Boiled eggs, meat or seafood dishes are available at banana leaf restaurants which are not exclusively vegetarian or vegan.

However, notably, long-term farm pairing studies or field trials that are required for definitely establishing or disproving this relationship are lacking. Owing to the high relevance of cadmium in food for human health, this lack of research constitutes an important knowledge gap.

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However, foetal life and early childhood are especially vulnerable periods for exposure to neurotoxicants and endocrine disruptors. Even brief occupational exposure during the first weeks of pregnancy, before women know they are pregnant, have been related to adverse long-lasting effects on their children’s growth, brain functions and sexual development, in a Danish study on greenhouse worker’s children [114,115,116,117,118]. This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions.

Examples of new target crops include forages (grasses and legumes), beans, pulses, a wide array of vegetables, herbs, and spices, and plants grown for flavor compounds. New traits will probably include fiber content (either increased to add more fiber or decreased to improve digestibility), altered oil profiles, decreased concentrations of antinutrients, increased or more consistent concentrations of such phytochemicals as antioxidants (for example, flavonoids) and phytoestrogens (for example, isoflavones or lignans), and increased mineral concentrations. Some of these are considered further in Chapter 8. 2014). Aflatoxins are considered by the U.S.

In this cohort, the preference of organic food was associated with a higher content of ruminant fatty acids in breast milk [40], which in turn was associated with a lower odds ratio for parent-reported eczema until age 2y [45]. Thompson PA, Ashbeck EL, Roe DJ, et al. Selenium Supplementation for Prevention of Colorectal Adenomas and Risk of Associated Type 2 Diabetes. J Natl Cancer Inst.

The street food version is typically served with grated coconut and orange-coloured jaggery. In some areas, gula melaka is the favoured sweetener.

One main advantage of organic food production is the restricted use of synthetic pesticides [5, 6], which leads to low residue levels in foods and thus lower pesticide exposure for consumers. It also reduces the occupational exposure of farm workers to pesticides and drift exposures of rural populations. On average over the last three available years, EFSA reports pesticide residues below Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) in 43.7% of all and 13.8% of organic food samples. MRLs reflect the approved use of a pesticide rather than the toxicological relevance of the residue.

also argue that it is unethical to conduct an underpowered study. However, most if not all of the rodent studies are based on widely accepted safety evaluation protocols with fixed numbers of animals per treatment. Cultural values regarding precaution for human safety and those regarding the number of animals subjected to testing are in conflict in this case.

It is typically served with compressed rice cut onions, cucumber, and a spiced peanut gravy for dipping. The town of Kajang in Selangor is famous for its satay; Sate Kajang is a term for a style of sate where the meat chunks are bigger than that of a typical satay, and the sweet peanut sauce is served along with a portion of fried chilli paste.

Suggestive evidence indicates that organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but residual confounding is likely, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall. Animal experiments suggest that growth and development is affected by the feed type when comparing identically composed feed from

The most commonly used laboratory animal species are rats and mice of various strains. The normal lifespan of laboratory rat strains varies from 2 to 3 years; that of mice is 18 months to 2 years. There is extensive literature from public-sector and private-sector laboratories on the variables that affect the lifespan of laboratory rats. It includes the source of the animals, whether they are in-bred or out-bred, the type (for example, synthetic, grain-based) and abundance (fixed amounts versus ad libitum feeding) of diets, and housing (single or multiple animals per cage, lighting, air changes, and so on).


The testing does not cover endogenous allergens whose concentrations have been increased by unintended effects of genetic engineering. In 2013, the European Commission set a requirement for assessing endogenous allergens in GE crops (EC, 2013). A number of articles since then have supported the approach (Fernandez et al., 2013) or have found it unnecessary and impractical (Goodman et al., 2013; Graf et al., 2014). Soybean is an example of a crop that has endogenous allergens. A paper on endogenous soybean allergens concluded that there is enough knowledge of only some soybean allergens for proper testing (Ladics et al., 2014).

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